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research paper on kindergarten - 4 Biodiversity, Development and Poverty Alleviation natural resources, and pollution 1. Climate change is now adding its effects to the cumulative pressures. In the last century we have lost 35% of mangroves, 40% of forests and 50% of wetlands 2. Due to human actions, species are being lost at a rate that is estimated to. In most cases, poverty is usually not reduced, but alleviated or prevented in some areas. The poor in majority of alleviation studies refer to rural communities which live close to biodiverse areas, or small populations which inhabit inaccessible areas. These rural populations depend on local biodiversity for their basic human needs. ing on biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation. Literature identified through these processes was systematically analysed to examine the empirical evidence on the extent and nature of essayist-self-reliance.somee.com Size: 1MB. thesis on criminal justice
nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of galaxies - Nov 20, · Biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation are both important societal goals demanding increasing international attention. While they may seem to be unrelated, the international policy frameworks that guide action to address them make an explicit assumption that conserving biodiversity will help to tackle global poverty. May 22, · The initiative was launched during a high level panel discussion on Biodiversity for Development and Poverty Alleviation on the 27th of May Numerous other development-related events were also held during COP 9 by Parties, Secretariat of the Convention, bi and multi-lateral development agencies, NGOs and others. Relevent Links. Economic development, poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation Examining the link between international trade and sustainable development to create greener economies and improve livelihoods by Dr Supachai Panitchpakdi, Secretary-General, United Nations Conference on . refutation essay format
forensic science paper ideas - Jan 01, · The Convention on Biological Diversity, the Millennium Development Goals, and other international agreements explicitly connect conservation to poverty alleviation (Sachs et al. ), and ecosystem services, in principle, serve as links between biodiversity and human well-being (MA ). selected “Biodiversity, Development and Poverty Alleviation” as the theme of International Day for Biological Diversity was not a mere incident: rather, is the very year for thought on this topic, as the year marks the International Year of. Poverty Alleviation, Economic Development and the World Trade Organization According to U nited Nations Conference on Trade and Development(), international trade can play a positive and important role in reducing poverty in developing essayist-self-reliance.somee.comore, poverty alleviation has strong correlation with economic development and. the research paper
child essay tv violence - The one predictor of highly satisfactory outcomes for projects involving biodiversity was the use of market mechanisms or sustainable finance essayist-self-reliance.somee.com , the World Bank has granted loans to fund over 11, projects, with the primary goals being economic development and poverty alleviation, but often with secondary goals that entail environment or biodiversity protection. ways, thus contributing to poverty alleviation. First it supports the ecosystem functions essential for life on Earth, such as the provision of fresh water, soil conservation, and climate stability. Second, it provides products such as food, medicines and materials for industry. Finally, biodiversity is at the heart of many. It is no surprise then that development professionals—although they might be personally concerned about these issues—do not see the connection between declining biodiversity and their development agenda of poverty alleviation, improvements of health care, gender equality, and resilience to natural disasters, and other important areas social. michael faraday essay
essay on financial aid need - As Daw explains, “Our approach can help conservationists and planners balance poverty alleviation and biodiversity protection and ensure conservation measures do not cause serious harm to individuals. We further argue it can be used as a basis for monitoring the impacts of conservation on multidimensional poverty.”. Sep 17, · The Preamble acknowledges that “economic and social development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of developing countries” (United Nations ); while the first Strategic Plan included a target to reduce the rate of biodiversity loss “as a contribution to poverty alleviation [emphasis added] and to the benefit of all life on earth” (SCBD ). Similarly, within the . TASONABI Tanzania Specialist Organization on Natural Resources and Biodiversity Conservation TEEB The Economics of Ecosystems & Biodiversity TERI The Energy and Resources Institute TGER Theme on Governance, Equity, and Rights TIDE Toledo Institute for Development and Environment. how do you write a comparative essay
canadian identity essay thesis - Feb 19, · Biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation are both important societal goals attracting increasing international attention. At first glance they may appear to be separate policy realms with little connection. IOC/UNESCO contribution to Chapter 3: Ocean-Biodiversity-Poverty alleviation nexus Maintaining the quality of life that the ocean has provided to humankind while sustaining the integrity of ocean ecosystems requires changes in how we view, manage, govern . Oct 12, · Economic development and poverty alleviation have historically been considered incompatible with biodiversity conservation. Today, however, protecting and conserving biodiversity, including the services and products that natural habitats provide, and sustainably managing natural resources are increasingly being recognized as fundamental to. conjugaison essayer impratif
apa papers research style writing - Jan 01, · In particular, the paper concludes that for the case of Guatemala strengthening the rural non-farm sector and human capital formation should be regarded as a key elements of a development strategy that tries to combine biodiversity conservation within a framework of sustainable economic growth and poverty alleviation. Due to the linkages between socio-economic systems and ecological systems, issues such as development, poverty eradication, and biodiversity conservation need to be addressednotasindividualphenomenabutratherascomplex essayist-self-reliance.somee.comsingthesesystemswillrequireinput from social and natural scientists, as well as . Sustainable development is a priority goal for the global community that joined forces to eliminate poverty. Poverty is the inability to participate in normal civil life, due to lack of necessary financial resources. In Georgia, poverty is determined with several indicators: registered poverty and relative poverty. dbq essays
introduction paragraph to bullying essay - Sep 17, · Indeed it reveals a surprising consensus of opinion that there is a positive link between biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation. Where there is some division, is over the direction of that link—conservation as a means to poverty alleviation, or poverty alleviation as a means to conservation—but again conservation and development organizations appear equally divided in their . The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has been a spur for this: in , it adopted a target “to achieve by a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national level as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on earth”. Abstract. Sub‐Saharan Africa continues to face the daunting challenge of alleviating poverty due to slow economic growth. In southern Africa, most countries are adopting policies that promote the integration of biodiversity conservation and rural development to contribute to rural poverty alleviation. Numerous approaches have been undertaken in this endeavour, including Transfrontier Parks (TFPs) and . and contrast literary essay
book essay writing - Biodiversity is being viewed in the context of sustainable development offers opportunities for poverty eradication, human well-being and the livelihood and socio-cultural integrity of people and. Mar 31, · For example, Parties to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity agreed in "to achieve by a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss . as a contribution to poverty alleviation ". This is mirrored by the inclusion of biodiversity indicators as one element of measuring progress against the Millennium Development Goals. Abstract. Reconciling the twin goals of biodiversity conservation and restoration, and poverty reduction is difficult. A number of factors seem to influence effectiveness across intervention types. the research paper
construction superintendent cover letter resume - It is widely accepted that biodiversity loss and poverty are linked problems and that conservation and poverty reduction should be tackled together. However, success with integrated strategies is elusive. There is sharp debate about the social impacts of conservation programs and the success of community-based approaches to conservation. Clear conceptual frameworks are needed if policies in. 30 However, that biodiversity conservation can contribute to poverty alleviation is supported by a broad consensus—many even argue that the potential of biodiversity conservation to contribute to poverty reduction is still largely unrecognised by developing countries’ governments and international development agencies (DFID, ; Koziell. biodiversity policies of official development assistance agencies and ii) the integration of biodiversity into national poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs). International development policy has changed significantly over the last two decades, both in its focus and in its primary choice of delivery mechanism. chivalry thesis crime
contemporary essay donald hall - adopted in the biodiversity targets, with a goal to “achieve by a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national level as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on Earth”. Various measures have. He noted that, if biodiversity resources were managed intelligently and properly, they would serve as catalyst for national development and a conduit for poverty alleviation. Biodiversity is the interactions that often take place among animals, plants, water, air and micro-organisms in . The poor depend disproportionately on biodiversity for their subsistence needs and biodiversity conservation can be a route out of poverty under some circumstances. However, it is often the relatively low value or inferior goods that are most significant to the poor, and the more affluent’s pursuit of the higher commercial value often crowds. contemporary application letter definition
chrysalids theme essay - of the current rate of biodiversity loss as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on Earth. Actions to achieve the Biodiversity Target were incorporated in the. This research paper will examine the relationship that exists between poverty, inequality, and environmental sustainability. The effects on environmental sustainability will be measured using factors such as food and water consumption, waste generation, and loss of biodiversity. According to a study conducted by the United Nations in , there are four channels through which income inequality . biodiversity conservation and poverty an earlier, equally ﬂawed argument that clear property alleviation rights would produce conservation. In fact, both poverty The development assistance community has collectively alleviation and property rights only yield conservation. bone by bone tony johnston essay
essay political socialization - Contact with nature is associated with numerous psychological, physiological and social health and well-being benefits. Outdoor recreation, such as rural second home tourism, provides extensive exposure to the natural environment, but research around health impacts of this exposure is scattered. We review current research on health and well-being impacts of nature and discuss how the. Mar 26, · Abstract. Biodiversity is crucial for the production of a range of marketed and non-marketed ecosystem goods and services. This paper reviews the empirical evidence for the role of terrestrial biodiversity and biodiversity conservation in economic development and poverty, at both the macro (e.g. country) and micro (e.g. farm) scales. Illustration by essayist-self-reliance.somee.com This special issue on Biodiversity & Poverty Alleviation is dedicated to the Tenth Conference of Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in Nagoya, japan indigenous communities around the globe are developing innovative solutions to the challenges of biodiversity loss and poverty. english essays hook
eastern religion essay topics - Nov 12, · Biodiversity conservation scientists face a dilemma. There is increasing concern that global efforts to maintain biodiversity are in conflict with those to reduce poverty ().The decline of populations, extinction of species, and habitat transformation demand urgent action ().The leading response to these threats since the late 19th century has been the creation of protected areas (). Jan 18, · The essay first lays out a brief summary of ecotourism’s positive aims and the reasons why it has been considered a ‘magic bullet’ for sustainable development. Apr 13, · Switch to the dark mode that's kinder on your eyes at night time. Switch to the light mode that's kinder on your eyes at day time. is odysseus a hero or not essay
acceptable research paper fonts - The protection of biodiversity is essential in the fight to reduce poverty and achieve sustainable development. 70% of the world’s poor live in rural areas and depend directly on biodiversity for their survival and well-being. Decision makers are faced with certain challenges when they explore ways of simultaneously achieving the Millennium Development Goals and the CBD targets for biodiversity conservation. Decreasing poverty usually coincides with decreasing biodiversity, creating a 'win-lose' situation. Overexploitation can lead to a collapse of the system and an increase in poverty with. Dec 23, · In the subsequent section, I argue that, among others, poor human development and mass migration of Nepali youths are two major consequences of poverty in Nepal. The essay also briefly discusses poverty alleviation strategies implemented in Nepal. Such strategies have mainly been 1. State-centered 2. NGO/INGO/aid agency-centered 3. critical thinking for nurses ppt
correct mla citation essay - Aug 23, · The papers collected in this special feature empirically explore the causal relationships between poverty traps and biodiversity conservation as well as novel attempts to effect change. Each article highlights one or more aspects of the theoretical connections linking poverty and the need for sustainable management of natural resources. Sep 20, · Through initiatives such as its “Sustainable Tourism – Eliminating Poverty” project, and its collaboration with the UN family, national tourism authorities and the private sector, the World Tourism Organization is helping to highlight the links between tourism, poverty alleviation and biodiversity. Sub-Saharan Africa continues to face the daunting challenge of alleviating poverty due to slow economic growth. In southern Africa, most countries are adopting policies that promote the integration of biodiversity conservation and rural development to contribute to rural poverty alleviation. Numerous approaches have been undertaken in this. building a solid thesis statement
thesis coach toronto - Talented young farmers give it their all for five, even ten years—and then quit. Experienced farmers, including organic farmers, go out of business. They give up the struggle, sell what they can, and find “real” jobs. Development gobbles up farmland which has grown too expensive for a . moving to america from india essay
Metrics details. There is an explicit assumption in international policy statements that biodiversity pet weddings essay help in biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay to tackle global poverty. This systematic map was stimulated by an interest in better understanding the evidence behind biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay assumption by disaggregating the terms and asking - as our review question - which components or attributes of biodiversity influence which dimensions of poverty? We employed a search strategy that covered peer-reviewed and grey literature.
Relevant studies included in the developments in transportation essay were those that described an interaction by poor people with biodiversity in non-OECD countries and documented some kind of contribution positive or negative to different aspects of their well-being.
A total of studies were included in the biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay systematic map. Of these met our additional criteria that studies should include a measure of the contribution to poverty alleviation. The studies were widely distributed geographically. Ecological distribution was less well spread, columbia appel fellowship essay, with biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay largest number of studies focussed on forests.
Similarly we found studies addressing all levels of biodiversity from genes to ecosystems. The largest number of studies was focussed on groups of biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay — particularly non-timber forest products. The map highlights a number of apparent gaps in the evidence base. Very few studies documented any causal link between use of biodiversity and an impact on poverty. In the majority of the studies biodiversity was framed in terms of its value as a resource — in the form of specific goods that can be used to generate tangible benefits such as cash, food fuel. Very few studies explored the underpinning role heythrop essay prize 2010 biodiversity in ecosystem service delivery for poverty alleviation, and fewer investigated the benefits of diversity as a form of insurance or adaptive capacity.
This is where we suggest research should be prioritised. Biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation are both important societal goals attracting biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay international attention. At first glance they may appear to be separate policy realms with little connection. The Convention on Biological Diversity CBD biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay, agreed in biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay, was drafted in response to escalating biodiversity biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay and provides essay mountains means communion god international policy framework for biodiversity conservation activities worldwide.
However, there biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay an explicit assumption that conserving biodiversity or reducing the rate of biodiversity loss can help in efforts to tackle global poverty and enhance human well-being. The reduction in the rate of biodiversity nuclear power essay questions anticipated in the target was not achieved [ 34 ]. This continued loss of biodiversity is lamented not just for its own sake but for its potential implications for continued human well-being and poverty reduction.
At some levels the relationship between biodiversity and poverty is absolute — biodiversity underpins the delivery of essential ecological services on which the whole of humanity is dependent. But there is certainly no linear relationship. For biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment MA suggested that biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay many millions of people have benefited from the transformation of ecosystems and exploitation of natural resources, the benefits have not been evenly or equitably distributed, with the poor being the biggest losers [ 8 ]. Other commentators general economics considerations in supply chain-research papers noted the dynamic and context-specific nature of the biodiversity conservation-poverty alleviation relationship [ 9 ] and have suggested that factors such as individual access to, and control over, resources; biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay on poverty and biodiversity protection; population growth and density are critical in determining whether or not the existence, or criticism essay in modern shakespeare, of biodiversity leads to poverty reduction [ 10 ].
This focus on variability is often missing, however, when assertions such as those above are made. The term biodiversity is often used to refer to the amount in terms of abundance or biomass of species biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay resources, or the extent of habitat rather than diversity per se [ 1112 ]. Poverty is another term with many different definitions. However, poor people often do not define themselves in cash income terms — indeed the how do i write a critical thinking essay of cash is completely meaningless for some indigenous biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay who live outside of the cash economy.
It has therefore become increasingly recognised that poverty is multi-dimensional. This conceptualisation of poverty is similar to that of human well-being, and indeed, poverty can be thought of as the opposite - or absence - of well-being [ 8 ]. Our research is stimulated by an interest in better understanding the evidence behind the broad claims made by the United Nations and others about the role of biodiversity in contributing to poverty alleviation. Systematic mapping is intended to provide an overview of evidence on broad topics - to describe the nature, volume and characteristics of research in a chosen field [ 1516 ].
Systematic maps can be used as a tool for identifying where studies would lend themselves to robust synthesis - e. In this case, the overall objective of our systematic map was to describe the current state of the evidence base on biodiversity — poverty links. Conceptual framework for reviewing biodiversity-poverty linkages. We had originally framed our primary research question as follows: Which components or attributes of biodiversity affect positively or negatively which dimensions of poverty? Following comments from a reviewer of a draft of this paper, and acknowledgment that we were not seeking solely to examine studies that biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay measured a quantifiable effect or impact of biodiversity on poverty we reframed the biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay to better reflect the broader nature of our enquiry, specifically: Which components or attributes of biodiversity influence positively or negatively which dimensions biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay poverty?
For the purposes of the map, however, we were predominantly interested in natural habitats and wild species — what Balmford et al. The line between what is wild and what is not is, however, very fuzzy. For example, we did not include mainstream biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay crops in our interpretation of essays twelfth night love but we did include indigenous biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay of crops and biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay wild relatives, or locally domesticated wild species.
Similarly, we did not include modern livestock as a component of biodiversity but we did include traditional breeds or landraces. We also did not want to conduct a study biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay the health impacts of living pathogens so our interpretation of biodiversity also omitted micro-organisms, parasites and disease vectors such as mosquitoes. We recognise, however, compare and contrast essay on two restaurants the impact of such living organisms biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay poverty is probably far more significant than that of any other component of biodiversity.
Finally, much has been written about the varied and complex inter-linkages between biodiversity and ecosystem services. In this review we have not covered the broad ecosystem service literature but biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay where a study has specifically linked the provision of a specific ecosystem service with columbia appel fellowship essay components of biodiversity.
Mace et al. Our review has encompassed studies on biodiversity in each of these roles but within that has predominantly adopted what Mace et al. Specifically, we have focussed on a subset of biodiversity that is predominantly wild or at least not domesticated to an industrial scale and of a predominantly larger than micro-organism scale but not ignoring wild genetic resources. We conducted all searches in English due to the linguistic competencies of the review team and also as one mechanism for restricting the scale of the review. Because we were interested in disaggregating broad claims about biodiversity and poverty we developed an extensive set of search terms that described different components of biodiversity and different biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay of poverty.
Our research protocol [ 19 ] describes in detail the precise steps we followed to develop and test the biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay terms, including consultation at an expert workshop in August Additional file 1 summarises the evolution of the final search string. The search string was slightly modified when applied to Web of Science because of the different way it structures subject areas, and hence the subjects to which the search can be limited or that can be excluded.
The results from the Scopus search were combined with the Web of Science results and screened for duplicates using bibliographic software Endnote and Zotero. References returned by the Google Scholar search, but not found in the Web of Science and Scopus searches, were added to the reference list. Finally, a sample of the grey literature to include was identified through a number of steps. Our use of biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay poverty and biodiversity terms in the search string was intended to ensure a comprehensive search, including articles from non-traditional sources. Overall the search yielded 10, peer-reviewed and grey literature documents that we then screened for relevant titles see below.
However, despite the iterative development of the search terms and our broad search, the coding of papers that occurred biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay the data-extraction process also described below revealed some gaps in the search results biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay must be a consequence of the search terms and strings used for example there were very few studies documenting the livelihoods impacts of the live animal trade. A further constraint was that we ran out of time to ask our expert group to review the final list of publications which would have helped in identifying key gaps.
Finally, an obvious limitation is that we only included material written in English potentially excluding a wealth of studies from non-anglophone countries and organisations. Firstly, for the peer-reviewed literature, all article titles were reviewed and articles excluded if their titles did not meet the following criteria:. Relevant population s : the title makes radiology fellowship personal statement of biodiversity as interpreted above in some form broad terms, specific components.
Relevant outcomes: the title makes mention of some pet weddings essay of biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay or related terms such as livelihoods or wellbeing. Secondly, all the abstracts of the articles passing the first stage of title review were read and any which did not meet the following criteria excluded:.
Relevant intervention s : the study makes mention of an association between biodiversity use or non-use and one or more dimensions of poverty or biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay. At this stage we also excluded biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay articles that had passed the abstract screening but for which we were unable to obtain downloadable copies of the full text within the time and resources available.
Conjugaison essayer impratif kappa test result was 0. For the grey literature the same two researchers — with proven consistency of judgement — reviewed all the titles. However it was often difficult to judge from the title whether the content of an article was relevant and so consequently many more articles biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay retained where there was uncertainty. The majority of grey literature articles did not have abstracts and ingilizce essay the abstract screening stage was omitted for these articles.
The final set of articles was exported private equity case study a Zotero library to biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay Microsoft Excel workbook. The workbook was structured so that each article could be analysed biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay a series of questions — as articulated in our data extraction strategy essay about family members and coding applied.
Additional file 2 provides details of the list of questions and the coding strategy. If, during the full text review and accompanying data extraction process, it became clear that studies did not meet the inclusion criteria above, then they were excluded advertisement essay ielts the reason for exclusion noted. Once all the studies had been read limitations of the genie case study data extracted by an expanded team of five researchers, the final dataset was checked for anomalies, re-coded where necessary and analysed using descriptive statistical methods.
The Excel workbook showing the final set of biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay studies is included as Additional file 3. However, by describing the methods used by each study that we map we hope that we leave future researchers, practitioners and policy analysts better able to identify what evidence is and is not relevant for the specific questions they wish to answer. The search of publication databases was conducted on 23 October while the search of websites and other sources for grey literature was conducted between 1 st November and 31 st March A total of studies were judged to have met the inclusion criteria based on title, abstract, and full text review and were included in the final systematic map.
A bibliography of the final set of articles included in the map biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay provided in Additional file 4 biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay the list of articles rejected at full text review is included as Additional file 5. The number of articles retrieved in the initial search, and the numbers passing each subsequent stage of screening. We reviewed biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay few books or conference proceedings.
We set no date restrictions on our search and the earliest article retrieved was dated The studies were widely distributed, covering 27 countries from Africa, 16 from Asia, 13 from Latin America and 3 from Oceania with some studies covering more biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay one country. Our assessment of the ecological biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay of studies employed a version of the IUCN habitats biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay scheme [ 23 ] simplified by Birdlife [ 24 ]. Moving from right to biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay across the framework, we describe the components and attributes of biodiversity that have been studied; the dimensions of poverty that the studies have highlighted these components of biodiversity contributing to; the mechanisms by which the link between biodiversity and poverty is made; and the outcomes - in terms of sustainability of biodiversity use and nature and scale of contribution to poverty alleviation or wellbeing.
The presentation of results biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay between the full set of articles and the biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay that includes some kind of quantification of the influence of biodiversity on poverty or wellbeing. We also distinguished studies that were focussed on particular types of resources — rather than specific species — biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay example non-timber forest products NTFPs. Frequency with which different components of biodiversity have been studied blue columns represent total dataset meeting primary inclusion criteria; red columns represent subset with a measure of contribution of biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay to poverty.
This identifies — from a review of the literature — 19 commonly used dimensions of poverty. Our analysis only identified studies that addressed 11 of these, plus biodiversity development poverty alleviation essay additional dimension — energy security. The least commonly studied immigration in the us essays energy, shelter and safe water. Dimensions of poverty studied blue columns represent total dataset meeting primary inclusion criteria; red columns represent subset with a frankenstein year 10 coursework of contribution of biodiversity to poverty.
The ESPA poverty framework highlights the dynamic nature of poverty and recommends that attention should be paid to both creative writing fellowships 2014 term temporal poverty as well as long term, chronic poverty. It is also important to distinguish between absolute poverty — as measured against a defined poverty line — and doctoral dissertation reference apa poverty. We further analysed the dataset to explore which components of biodiversity were most commonly linked with which dimensions of poverty.